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The Facts About Reading

children reading

The Reading Process

  • Reading IS a complex series of steps requiring the brain to see the printed code, process the information (sounds, symbols, vocabulary, & connected text), & respond to the received information

  • Reading IS putting meaning to a code

  • Reading IS NOT word calling

Reading Disabilities

  • An unexpected difficulty in reading in children & adults who otherwise possess the intelligence, motivation, & education necessary for developing accurate & fluent reading

  • It is frequently genetic

  • It crosses all cultures

Symptoms of Reading Disabilities: Pre-School Years

  • Trouble learning common nursery rhymes, such as "Jack and Jill"

  • Difficulty learning (and remembering) the names of letters in the alphabet

  • Seems to be unable to recognize letters in his/her own name

  • Mispronounces familiar words; persistent "baby talk"

  • Doesn’t recognize rhyming patterns like cat, bat, rat

Symptoms of Reading Disabilities: Kindergarten & First Grade

  • Reading errors that show no connection to the sounds of the letters on the page—will say "puppy" instead of the written word "dog" in an illustrated page with a dog shown

  • Does not understand that words come apart

  • Complains about how hard reading is, or "disappearing" when it is time to read

Symptoms of Reading Disabilities: Second Grade & Up

  • Very slow in acquiring reading skills.  Reading is slow and awkward

  • Trouble reading unfamiliar words, often making wild guesses because he cannot sound out the word

  • Doesn’t seem to have a strategy for reading new words

  • Avoids reading out loud

How to Support a Reading Disability at Home (Reading Readiness)

  • Speak directly to your child

  • Speak slowly and clearly, pronouncing each sound very carefully (you want him to notice each word or word part you say)

  • Read to your child daily

  • Play rhyming games

  • Example: have him pick objects that rhyme with a common word—selecting a shoe for a word that rhymes with "two"

  • Use concrete objects (blocks or coins) to represent the sounds in words

  • Example: your child should indicate how many sounds he hears in a word by the number of coins (or blocks) he places on the table.

How to Support a Reading Disability at Home (Readers)

  • Encourage your child to visualize the story when they read

  • Use descriptive language when having a discussion

  • Use idioms/figurative language in your everyday conversations

  • When your child is struggling with a word, have them break up the word into syllables.

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